Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Posts Tagged ‘Great War’

Engineers surveying the seabed of the Firth of Clyde and the North Channel on the route of a planned undersea power cable recently came across a wreck. It was identified as that of a First World War German submarine, or U-Boat, either UB-82 or UB-85. Much press coverage resulted, due to the bizarre claim made by the captain of UB-85 when he surrendered to a British warship. A sea monster, he said, had attacked his vessel and damaged it so badly that it was unable to submerge. It seems more likely that human error was actually to blame, and that the captain did not care to admit this.

The war saw the transformation of the submarine from coast defence novelty to wide-ranging commerce destroyer. The wreck discovery is a reminder of the threat posed by these craft in the waters to the west of Ayrshire’s southern tip, where the shipping lanes in and out of the Irish Sea, the North Channel and the Firth of Clyde all converged. This was the closest to Ayrshire that the shooting war came.

On 11 March 1915 the auxiliary cruiser HMS Bayano, a converted merchant vessel, was sunk by U-27 about seven nautical miles south west of Ballantrae. 195 men were lost, and 20 of the 26 survivors were landed at Ayr.

Sectional view of a mine-laying coastal U-Boat.

Sectional view of a mine-laying coastal U-Boat.

Some classes of U-Boat were equipped to lay mines, and many commercial craft including Clyde Coast paddle steamers were hastily converted to auxiliary minesweepers. The Ayrshire shipyards at Ardrossan, Irvine and Troon constructed a total of 31 purpose-built minesweepers.

The Carrick Herald of 6 November 1914 reports the latest restrictions on local lighting. These were progressively tightened and extended in all coastal areas, and transgressors were fined.

The Carrick Herald of 6 November 1914 reports the latest restrictions on local lighting. These were progressively tightened and extended in all coastal areas, and transgressors were fined.

Concern that U-Boats would use lights on shore to navigate after dark led to a blackout being imposed in coastal areas around Britain. When a U-boat fired shells at a chemical plant at Whitehaven in Cumbria in August 1915, it raised fears that Ayrshire’s greatest contributor to munitions production, Nobel’s British Dynamite Factory on the coast at Ardeer, might be similarly targeted or attacked by saboteurs coming ashore. A permanently-garrisoned fortified perimeter was constructed around the works with small coast-defence guns emplaced on the seaward side.

A snapshot dated April 1918, taken from a window in Wellington Square, shows an SSZ class Royal Navy non-rigid airship off the beach at Ayr’s Low Green.

A snapshot dated April 1918, taken from a window in Wellington Square, shows an SSZ class Royal Navy non-rigid airship off the beach at Ayr’s Low Green.

Not long after the sinking of the Bayano, a Royal Naval Air Service base for anti-submarine airships was established at West Freugh on Luce Bay, Wigtownshire, and these craft would have become a familiar sight off Ayrshire’s southern coast. Unlike the huge and complex German Zeppelins with their rigid framework, they were simple gasbags with a rudimentary compartment for crew and engine slung beneath. Their main weapon was the radio with which they could summon patrolling warships if they sighted a submarine. In November 1916 airship SS-23 force-landed near Girvan due to engine failure. Its gasbag was deflated, and it was taken to West Freugh by road to be put back into service.

White crosses mark the graves in Girvan’s Doune Cemetery of French sailors Adolphe Harre and S. Brajuel, drowned when the Longwy was sunk in 1917.

White crosses mark the graves in Girvan’s Doune Cemetery of French sailors Adolphe Harre and S. Brajuel, drowned when the Longwy was sunk in 1917.

The French merchant ship Longwy was heading into the Firth of Clyde with a cargo of iron ore from the Spanish port of Bilbao when she was torpedoed by UC-75 on the night of 4 November 1917. She went down in the same area where the Bayano had been lost. The weather was rough and none of the 38 on board survived. The bodies of three of the crew, including the captain, Joseph Huet from Saint-Malo, were washed ashore near Girvan and were buried in the town’s Doune Cemetery. The following appeal appeared in the local press: ‘It would be a graceful thing on the part of this community, if there were a representative attendance at the interment’. Captain Huet’s remains were later returned to France, but at Girvan, crosses bearing the legend ‘Mort pour la France’ mark the graves of Adolphe Harre and S. Brajuel. Telegraphist Harre was one of an eight-strong French Navy detachment on board.

Although it eventually brought America into the war, the German U-Boat campaign took Britain to the brink of starvation before shipping convoys were belatedly introduced.

Advertisements

Read Full Post »

ww1exhibition

Exhibition

Wednesday 6th August – Saturday 30th August 2014, Carnegie Library, 12 Main Street, Ayr

To commemorate the centenary of the outbreak of the First World War, an exhibition of photographs and memorabilia will be on show in Ayr’s Carnegie Library. It will cover the battlefields and the home front, including auxiliary hospitals. Tributes will be included to the soldiers from Newfoundland and the airmen from the Commonwealth and America who were brought to Ayrshire by the war.

Entry to the exhibition is free.

The Great War Home Front on Film: A Scottish Screen Archive Selection

Wednesday 13th August 2014, 7pm Carnegie Library, 12 Main Street, Ayr

Local History Librarian Tom Barclay will present seven short films from the National Library of Scotland’s Scottish Screen Archive. They include; the visit of King George V to Clydeside in 1917; a 1918 government film about food production; the fund-raising visits of a tank to Scottish cities; Peace Day celebrations in Kilmarnock in 1919; and the unveiling of Saltcoats War Memorial. The screening will last approximately one hour followed by refreshments.

Tickets £3 including refreshments. Numbers are limited for this event, please book in advance.

Tickets available from Carnegie Library or phone 01292 286385 to book.

Ayrshire’s Great War: The local impact of the global conflict 1914-1918

Wednesday 20th August 2014, 7pm, Carnegie Library, 12 Main Street, Ayr

As part of our First World War Centenary commemoration, Local History Librarian Tom Barclay will be repeating his presentation on Ayrshire’s part in the war which he prepared for our South Ayrshire History Fair in June. He will follow the course of the conflict, and look at its effect on the county’s men and women and on those from further afield who were brought here by the war. The talk will last approximately one hour followed by refreshments.

Tickets £3 including refreshments. Numbers are limited for this event, please book in advance.

Tickets available from Carnegie Library or phone 01292 286385 to book.

Read Full Post »